A rare bronze carriage in the underground of Lushan, Shaanxi, is more than 3,000 years old.

The reporter learned today from the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology that in a newly discovered car-horse pit near the Zhouyuan site in Hejia Village, Daishan County, Shaanxi Province, archaeologists are excavating a set of bronze carriages buried in the pit. It is reported that in order to ensure the complete and scientific extraction of information and information to ensure the effective protection of the cultural relics, the relevant excavation and protection work plan for the car pit is being stepped up, and a stainless steel protection shed has been built above the pit.

The newly discovered car pit is located in the south field of Hejia Village, Jingdang Town, Daishan County. It is located 100 meters south of the “Fengchu Site” and has been confirmed by archaeological experts. Its age is in the middle and late Western Zhou Dynasty, dating back more than 3,000 years. The Che Ma Hang head is facing south, the rear of the car is facing north, the north and south are 4.3 meters long, the east and west are 3.2 meters wide, and the depth is 1.0 meters. A bronze carriage is buried in the pit.

Since the beginning of August this year, the new Zhouyuan archaeological team composed of the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, the Peking University Institute of Archaeology and the Institute of Archaeology of the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discovered the car while drilling and selecting excavations near Hejia Village. Horse pit.

According to experts from the Shaanxi Provincial Institute of Archaeology, the bronze carriage found in the pit is 1.2 meters above the ground, 2.4 meters long and 1.8 meters wide. Surprisingly, the wagon wheels found in the past are wrapped in bronze. The thickness is basically about 1 cm, and the whole wheel found this time is completely made of bronze solids, which is extremely rare in domestic archaeology. According to measurements, the wheel of this bronze carriage has a diameter of 1.4 meters, a circumference of about 4.4 meters, a tooth width of 5.7 centimeters and a thickness of 1.9 centimeters. The nail holes can be seen in some places. The bronze wheels are 15 centimeters thick and 5 centimeters wide. Do spokes, because the long-term buried underground has already decayed, and the bronze "bearing" in the middle of the wheel has fallen to the bottom of the pit. According to experts, the bronze carriage weighs about 24 kilograms. During the excavation, a large number of copper pieces were found next to the car, and each piece of copper was beautifully decorated.

The local Hejia Village, a surnamed villager, said that he saw at the excavation site that the distance between the two shackles of the bronze car was 1.8 meters. The shaft connecting the ruts was very beautiful, and it was as thick as an adult arm with a fish scale. The pattern is also engraved with a tiger head.

Even more amazing is that in front of this bronze carriage, horse bones are also found, which may be three or four. "The bones of a horse in the middle are somewhat free. Is it the bone of two horses or a horse? It must be discovered after the excavation."

It is understood that the excavation began in the middle and late August, because the east wheel of the carriage first exposed the pit, in order to ensure the integrity of the wheel, the archaeological team decided to first excavate from the east side. On August 23, when the earth around the east wheel was cleaned to 60 cm, the copper car's "car jurisdiction" (xiá, the small iron rod worn on the big axle head), "car 輨" (guǎn, wrapped in the car The metal sleeve on the hub) and the "rudder" (wèi, which are placed at the ends of the axle and shaped like a cylinder) are exposed one after another. The animal face pattern is very beautiful, and it is also embellished with exquisite turquoise. “It’s like the diamonds on the wheels of luxury cars.” The wooden rims are surrounded by copper shells, which were rarely found in the same type in the past week. .

The reporter learned today that the left side excavation of this copper carriage is nearing completion, while the right side only excavated about 2 centimeters. After the entire body is unearthed, the archaeological team will reinforce and protect the turquoise on the rut.

At present, the use of the bronze carriage is still difficult to determine. Some experts believe that it may be a chariot, but it has not yet been certified at the excavation site. Some experts believe that it may be a “watching car”. The level of the owner is likely to be a prince. the above. As the excavation work has just begun, many issues concerning the overall structure and nature of the Che Ma Hang are still to be resolved after further work.

The Zhouyuan ruins are large ancient ruins in the 11th century BC - 8th century BC. The birthplace of Zhou culture and the settlement of Zhou people before the commerce. It is a national key cultural relics protection unit. Its center is in Fufeng County, Baoji City, Shaanxi Province. In the area of ​​Daishan County, it is 70 kilometers long from east to west and 20 kilometers wide from north to south, with a total area of ​​about 33 square kilometers. In recent years, major discoveries have emerged here, and a large number of bones and bucks have been unearthed, as well as a large number of precious national treasure bronzes.

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